Italian Renaissance Art
In painting, this new approach manifested as realistic depictions of people, as evident in Leonardo's iconic Mona Lisa. Using sfumato—a technique in which the artist forgoes bold outlines for soft, blurred edges—as well as realistic shadows and aerial perspective, Leonardo was able to produce a humanist and seemingly secular portrayal of a contemporaneous female figure.
Furthermore, unlike Medieval paintings—which often convey figures “floating” against ethereal backdrops—Renaissance scenes usually feature earthly backgrounds. In Raphael's Madonna of the Goldfinch, for example, the Virgin Mary, Jesus, and John the Baptist are placed in an ordinary, everyday scene in nature. This humanizes the holy family, culminating in a relatable and realistic depiction.
In addition to traditional works on canvas, Renaissance artists popularized another type of painting: the fresco.
Created by applying paint onto wet plaster, frescoes are valued for their matte aesthetic, richness of color, and long-lasting nature. They often adorn large surfaces, like Raphael's School of Athens on the walls of the Vatican's papal apartments, and Michelangelo's ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
Much like the figures in Renaissance paintings, sculptures produced during this period convey an interest in realism. This is particularly evident in Michelangelo's figurative sculptures, like his iconic David statue. Employing contrapposto, or “counterpose,” David showcases a realistically balanced posture. Additionally, the figure exhibits lifelike features and a detailed anatomy.
This interest in realism and balance is also apparent in Michelangelo's Pietà, a dramatic sculpture of the Virgin Mary with her crucified son.
On top of the fine arts, the Renaissance style is also evident in architecture of the period. Led by Brunelleschi, the designer and architect behind Florence's famed duomo, or dome, Italian Renaissance architecture often conveys an interest in symmetry and balance.
Additionally, buildings of the era frequently feature columns, arches, and moulding, as evident in the ornate façade of St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City.
Today, the Italian Renaissance is perceived as the pinnacle of art history. With an emphasis on balance and an appreciation for humanism, art produced during this period has influenced contemporary art, as evident in everything from photorealistic depictions to lifelike sculptures. Additionally, many Renaissance masterworks have become fixtures in everyday life, appearing as everyday advertisements and art history accessories.