Shortly before World War I, painters in Germany and Austria began to take an experimental approach to their practice. Eventually known as Expressionists, these artists adopted and adapted the unprecedented characteristics of other modern movements. Like Post-Impressionist and Fauvist works of art, pieces rendered in the Expressionist style convey a fascination with bright, artificial color and individualistic iconography.
Characterized by deconstructed, fractured forms, Cubism marked modern art's shift toward abstraction. Pioneered in 1907 by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso, the avant-garde movement materialized as topsy-turvy paintings, multi-dimensional sculptures, and cutting-edge collages. Like other modern art movements, Cubism emphasized a subjective approach to creating. “When we discovered Cubism,” Picasso explains, “we did not have the aim of discovering Cubism. We only wanted to express what was in us.”
In the 1920s, visual artists Salvador Dalí, Max Ernst, Man Ray, Joan Miró, and Yves Tanguy came together to found Surrealism, a movement rooted in the subconscious. Lacking “any control exercised by reason, exempt from any aesthetic or moral concern” (André Breton, Manifestoes of Surrealism), the genre culminated in a diverse collection of dream-like depictions straight from the artists' imaginations.
In the middle of the 20th century, an innovative group of artists forewent figurative styles of painting for an original, abstract aesthetic. Known as Abstract Expressionists, these painters placed artistic emphasis not only on modernist characteristics like color, composition, and emotion, but on the creative process itself.
Modern Art vs. Contemporary Art
Due to the experimental nature and overlapping themes of both modern and contemporary art, the genres are often confused for one another. However, once one recognizes the movements that compose each, the ambiguous, blurred line that differentiates them becomes clearer.
Typically, modern art is understood to include Impressionism, Abstract Expressionism, and the stylesin between. Therefore, contemporary art commences with the first major movement following modernism—Pop Art—and, of course, continues today.